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Info guide to cameo jewellery

Antique victorian carved shell cameo brooch jewelry

Cameo Lovin’

Cameos have been treasured throughout the ages. They are made from hand carved shell, agate, marble, coral and precious gemstones, and even made from volcano lava.


Early Cameo History

It’s generally thought that cameos originated in the Middle Eastern regions over 2000 years ago. They wouldn’t have been used for the decorative purposes we love them for today – cameos were statement objects. They might depict the portrait of the King or Ruler of the time (therefore showing political allegiance of the wearer), or show a religious icon. Cameos were also used as amulets and charms to guard against evil spirits and promote good luck. The main materials used in the making of ancient cameos were precious gemstones and hard-stones such as marble and agates – back then, shell cameos were considered inferior imitations only to be worn by the poor.

Vintage carved agate hardstone cameo ring antique jewelry

Vintage carved agate hardstone cameo ring

 



The Cameo Jewellery Golden Era


Although cameos have been esteemed throughout history (Queen Elizabeth I and Napoleon Bonaparte were famously both avid collectors), the heyday of cameo jewellery was between the 18th and 19th Century. They were loved in royal circles and the aristocracy around Europe, who at the time dictated the fashions trends of the time. This period was also the time of the famous Grand Tours,  where the wealthy members of high society would travel extensively around Europe, soaking up new cultures. Italy was an especially popular destination due to its prestigious history in arts and culture. Most of the finest cameos came from there, and were often bought as souvenirs, or sent back home as a gift for loved ones.


Modern Cameo Jewellery


By the mid 20th Century the cameos’ popularity was ending. Though they were still being produced, the quality of the carving in many pieces became poor, with figures and portraits being much cruder than their life-like predecessors of the Georgian and Victorian period.

 

ABOVE: Two cameos. The left one dates from the 19th Century Victorian period, while the one on the right is from the 1990s. Note the difference in quality, with the older cameo benefiting from far superior carving.

 

The cameo is once again seeing a new lease of life. The 21st Century is bringing new state of the art techniques to the craft, such as laser and ultrasonic stone carvings; portraits of pets and loved ones are notable growing areas. These new cameo artisans use lasers to carve the stone while working from emailed photographs, to create a perfect likeness. It seems no matter what happens throughout history, the art of the cameo survives, adapts and flourishes.

How Cameos Are Made


A cameo is carved from one piece of shell or stone such as agate. Shells and stones are naturally layered in colour, for example, the underside may be dark brown, whilst the top may be white in colour. A cameo-carver artisan, due to their years of training, knows how to carve the shell or stone, so that the “white” part is the picture (eg, a lady), and the background is the dark part of the shell or stone. If you do a search for cameo carving on youtube, you’ll see some good videos of this.

Cameo carving is a highly skilled craft, which involves a long apprenticeship and a complete understanding of the materials being used. The basic theory behind both hard stone and shell carving is that the artist develops a deep knowledge of how best to cut and shape a material, so the different coloured layers of shell or stone can be carved and manipulated to their best advantage. For example, a piece of agate may have three layers of colour (eg brown at the bottom, white in the centre, and black at the top). The artisans use their knowledge to take advantage of the layers, leaving the brown as a flat base, the white above this is carved as the portrait, and the black above that is carved into hair. This gives the lifelike 3-D appearance of the fine cameos we see.


‘Fake’ or reproduciton cameos jewellery


As with all fine jewellery, you’ll always find fakes and costume jewellery copies. While most people are honest in describing their cameos, you will occasionally come across people trying to pass on costume jewellery copies as a real carved cameo.  Reproduction cameos are made from plastic or glass. The most common plastic cameo depicts a side portrait of a young lady with her long hair tied in a ponytail – this is the cameo portrait you see in all the high street shops.


Plastic cameos

There are also some beautifully detailed plastic cameos depicting mythology on the market, usually dating from around the 1960s, which to a beginner may look real. Plastic cameos feel warm and slightly soft, not hard and ‘clinky’ like shell. The background can also give you clues – the colour is often a little too bright or pink in plastics. Tap a cameo gently on your front teeth if unsure – plastic cameos feel warm and make a slightly ‘dull’ thud sound, while shell and agate are hard, cold and make a lighter ‘clink’. Finally, you could always try a hot pin test (though this could damage the jewellery and its price, so it’s not recommended). Take a very hot sewing pin (hold it with pliers) and touch the cameo with it in an inconspicuous place. Most plastics will melt, while glass, agate or shell won’t.

ABOVE: Two good quality plastic cameo brooches. Note the unrealistic background colour on the left one, and the molded look of the right one.



Glass cameos

Glass cameos tend to be either one uniform colour such as cream, black or turquoise, or two contrasting colours (eg black background and a glued on opaque white portrait). Glass is cold to touch (like stone), but the quality is not there. They often look quite molded with little true detail, and sometimes have dyed areas especially around the hair that imitate ‘dirt’. Glass and plastic cameos tend to be thicker and chunkier than agate, while shell cameos are very thin. Occasionally agate cameos can be ‘faked’, with a carved agate portrait being glued to a different agate background (this is called a cameo doublet). A good magnifying glass can help you spot this



Collecting plastic or glass cameos is a fun hobby in its own right – many of them are beautiful to look at and are durable enough to worn everyday. The problem begins when people try to pass them on as real.


Cameo Themes, Valuation and Starting a Cameo Collection


Putting a value to cameos can be daunting if you’re new to the subject. Many factors have to be taken into account, including materials used (eg shell, volcanic lava or gemstones), quality of the carving, and if subject matter is rare or not. A big factor is also condition. Hold a shell cameo up to the light and you may see lines and cracks. This is not desirable, and any damage to a cameo can affect its value (unless the subject matter is rare or sought after).  Some cameos are set into solid gold or silver, though confusingly if the carving quality of a gold set cameo is poor, then it’s often not worth as much as a highly detailed top quality carved cameo in plain base metal.


Portrait Cameos

Most cameos are portraits. Right facing is most common, then left facing after that, and very occasionally you may see a forward facing portrait.



Mythological Cameos
Cameos depicting scenes from Roman mythology were made up until the early 1900s, and are always highly sought after. Popular themes are:


1.The Three Graces ( three dancing women side by side)

2. Hebe and Zeus ( a swan swooping down from the sky towards a lady)

3. Diana the Moon Goddess ( has a moon crescent in her hair)

4. Bacchus the God of Wine/ Intoxication (has grapes in the hair)

5. Athena/ Minerva Goddess of Wisdom, Warriors and the Arts (female warrior with helmet)

6. Peace- Psyche & the Dove (beautiful woman with dove bird)

7. Poseidon/ Neptune (holds a pronged trident)

8. St George and the Dragon

9. Apollo (laurel wreath in his hair)

10. Venus and Cupid (Venus is always a beautiful lady, sometimes playing a harp and if you see a small winged cherub it’s Cupid).

antique cameo brooch hebe zeus shell mourning victorian jewelry

ABOVE: A Victorian cameo depicting Hebe and Zeus (as an eagle). Note the fine quality carving of the brooch. Unfortunately, this one has a crack down one side, which in most cases severely affect the price. However, this cameo was quite special; it had a secret glass compartment at the back which could hold a keepsake – almost unheard of in cameo jewellery.



Other subjects in cameo jewellery.


Cameos of flowers are popular when beginning a collection as they can still be purchased quite cheaply. Occasionally you’ll find cameos depicting rural farm scenes, or animals such as horses. These were often private commissions, and can be highly detailed. Value depends on the theme and quality, and will usually in the same price region as the mythology cameos.

 

Georgian tiny carved shell cameo brooch lake antique jewellery Vintage carved shell cameo brooch rural peeping tom jewellery gold

ABOVE: Two rural scene cameos. The one on the left is tiny (less than an inch), and dates from the Georgian period. The right one is from the 20th Century, and shows a cheeky peeping tom boy looking at a girl bathing in the river.



Dating Cameos


Nothing beats personal experience when it comes to learning how to date a cameo. Go to antiques fairs and vintage jewellery shops and handle as many as possible. Get a feel for them – look at the metal settings, quality of carving and subject matter. Some guidelines below may help:


1. Look at the clasp. This is always a good indication of age. ‘Roll over clasps’ are modern, and won’t really be seen on pre 1920s jewellery. A plain ‘c-clasp’ (ie the brooch pin loops under a c shaped piece of metal with no ‘roll over’ fitting) are a good indication of a possible old/ antique brooch.The pin is a giveaway too. Pre 1920s pins were set in a T-shape.

2. What is the subject? Mythology shell cameos usually date from the 18th Century to the very early 20th Century. Portraits can give hints of age too, and here I’m going to share with you a dealers secret! Look at the persons nose. A strong ‘Roman’ nose indicates pre 1860s. Straighter noses are Victorian, while tiny pert noses are contemporary 20th/ 21st Century. Chunky rounded ladies are generally Victorian in origin Cameos made from Whitby Jet or lava are usually Georgian or Victorian.


Modern vintage (ie after the 1930s) cameos are usually portraits of pretty young dainty ladies, with flowers on their hair. Some cameos wear necklaces which are set with sparking stones such as diamonds. These are known as habille cameos.

 

Modern laser cut agate cameos are easy to identify, having a vivid background colour (usualluy blue or pink) and white portrait . The portraits are incredibly detailed – often too detailed! Hair is let loose and swirly, and the whole cameo has a wispy, almost Art Nouveau dreamy feel. This type of cameo also can feel slightly ‘gritty’ when gently rubbed across your teeth, whereas the old agate cameos feel much smoother like glass.


Caring For Your Cameo Jewellery


Shell cameos need a little TLC once a year. Simply wash them gently in weak soapy water and dry thoroughly. Rub a little mineral oil all over front and back and leave to soak in for a couple of hours, after which you can wipe away all the access. By treating (called feeding) the cameo in this way once a year you are protecting it from drying out and cracking, preserving it for future generations to enjoy and admire.

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Making friends with your library

When it comes to learning and researching vintage jewellery, don’t forget to use a library!

I found an edition of the ultra rare Elizabeth Taylor book ‘My Love Affair with Jewelry’ in my little local town library (and yes, the book is totally amazing), and have recently had a day out to lovely Liverpool, including a visit to the newly refurbished Central library ( three words – wow wow wow!).  And remember, any library will order books in for you too.

Much as I love sitting in my house and hugging my laptop, I realize I’ve been a slave to the internet far too much.  Seriously, take a trip to a library – it’s like re-discovering a fabulous old friend 🙂

I’ve got a little secret ……

I adore jewellery.

Whether a fabulous vintage brooch, a gold diamond ring or a new artisan charm bracelet, if it’s well made and has that sparkle of thought and creation you can guarantee it’ll give me goose pimples

But I have a naughty little secret to share with you. I know I’m an all round jewellery enthusiast, but………..I have a favourite type of jewellery.

I can’t help it. I’m in love, and it’s my first love at that. Oh, other jewellery comes and goes. I’ll get a desire for a certain genre of period. I’ll go crazy for a coloured gemstone, a well carved cameo or antique Scottish agate. But time and again, I’ll go back to my first little crush.


The glass bead.

Of all the jewellery in the world that I come across, the humble glass bead continues to be my firm favourite.

Why?

Because glass beads can be made into some of the most creative, expressive, accessible and beautiful jewellery. The sheer variety of beads is breathtaking. From the rainbow lustre’s of aurora borealis crystals, shimmering carnival glass, glowing Uranium glass and bold millefiori beads, to the beautiful creations of Murano, and hand made artisan lampwork beads which have been made to your own specifications, glass beads design and manufacture has almost infinite possibilities.

Vintage 1960s bridal wedding glass crystal ab bead necklace aurora borealis jewelry

Shimmering vintage circa 60s crystal glass aurora borealis beads

 

Vintage milk glass molded pressed bead white and swaovski crystal necklace

Molded white opaque glass interspaced with Swarovski™ beads, which are a type of leaded glass (aka crystal)

 

Vintage murano venetian speckled glass bead necklace jewelry

Vintage Venetian speckled glass, also known as ‘Scottish agate glass’.

vintage murano venetian lampwork wedding cake glass bead brooch jewelry

Vintage Murano Italian wedding glass beads, so called due to the icing style decoration.

Vintage 1920s 30s art deco Czechoslovakian glass foil green glass bead necklace jewelry bohemian

Circa 1920s Art Deco glass beads, with a gorgeous metallic foil inner sheen. Even though these beads are nearly 100 years old, they have lost none of their iridescent shimmer and glow.

Vintage art deco 1920s 1930s bohemian Czechoslovakian blue crystal glass faceted bead rolled gold links necklace jewelry

Circa 1920s Art Deco blue necklace, with made with Czechoslovakian faceted glass beads.

Vintage 1950s banded agate glass bead necklace jewelry brown cream

For centuries glass has been used in jewellery to imitate gemstones. This circa 1950s necklace uses glass which has been specifically created to mimic banded agate gemstones

vintage orange white swirl end of day glass bead flapper necklace jewelry

Vintage End Of Day glass bead necklace. This type of glass is so called due to glass artisans using the bits of glass left ‘at the end of the working day’ to create objects d’art and jewellery.

French jet black glass pendant facated crystal statement Gothic jewelry necklace

Glass jewellery is still hugely desirable, as shown in this modern French Jet (aka black glass) bead crystal pendant necklace

Lampwork flower glass bead charm bracelet crystal red jewelry

This adorable bracelet is detailed with lampwork glass bead decorated with flowers.

vintage art deco 1920s 1930s pink crystal swirl french jet black glass bead necklace jewelry

Beautiful art deco pink swirl and French Jet necklace. Glass bead jewellery was hugely popular in the 1920s and 30s, and many examples survive in lovely condition today.

Vintage 1950s 2 row carnival glass peacock petrol glass crystal facated nekclace jewelry

Vintage 1950s faceted carnival glass bead necklace.

Vintage 1950s faceted carnival glass bead necklace.

goldstone aventurine glass bead gold sparkle pendant collar necklace jewelry

Contemporary goldstone (aka aventurine glass) beads. Though goldstone looks like a modern technique, it actually dates back hundreds of years to the creative master glass makers of Italy.

vintage art deco 1920s 1930s uranium glass UV glow yellow bead necklace jewelry Czechoslovakina Bohemian

Hold a UV torch to old glass beads and some of them will glow in the dark. This is because they contain tiny traces of real uranium, which was used to intensify coloured glass. The above yellow necklace is made from uranium glass, and below is the same necklace under UV light.

A Uranium glass bead necklace under UV light.

A Uranium glass bead necklace under UV light.

A Uranium glass bead necklace under UV light.

Nothing feels the same as wearing a glass bead necklace. I can’t put my finger on it – glass just feels wonderful when worn…..almost like you can sense the quality and workmanship without even having to look at it – you just feel it.

So there you have it – I love glass beads. And I’ll share with you one final secret; jewellery should always be about what you like. Not what society says you should aspire to own, or some jeweller (or sales-person) says is a good investment.

Jewelry is about you, and that is what makes it truly special.

Glass beads article on the Jewellery Muse blog