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What is French Jet jewellery made from? Info and guide here!

Shopping around for black jewellery, you many come across a term called ‘French Jet’. While it sounds romantic or even like a gemstone in its own right, French Jet simply a fancy word for good old black glass.

It became popular during the Victorian period (1837 – 1901) when black jewellery was very fashionable. Genuine Jet (which is a real gemstone, most famously found in the Whitby area on the east coast of England) was the most sought after material for making black Victorian jewellery, but due to demand and increasing scarcity it was became expensive. Black glass was a much cheaper alternative.

Where the actual name French Jet comes from is unclear. The glass beads and stones themselves were usually made in the great glass making countries of Europe, such as Austria and the Czechoslovakia regions, and then sent through to other countries (including England and France) to be made into jewellery.

Other black materials used in Victorian mourning jewellery are: onyx, Vulcanite (a type of early rubber), Gutta Percha, genuine real jet, and bog oak (ancient fossilized wood type material usually found in Ireland).

Quick glance identity to mourning jewellery materials:

vintage french jet glass large earrings glass 60s

French Jet = made from glass, feels cold, hard to touch. Can be quite heavy. Shiny and reflective. Will warm up when held in you hand. Makes a distinctive high pitched ‘chink’ sound if gently tapped on teeth.

 

antique vintage victorian whitby jet two row bead necklace jewellery mourning

Genuine Jet gemstone (eg Whitby Jet) = feels warm, quite soft to the touch, with an almost plastic/ oily feeling. Makes a much duller ‘chink’ when held.

 

Onyx vintage sterling silver brooch jewellery

Onyx = very cold, hard to touch. Heavy to hold. Shiny and reflective. Will not warm up when held in you hand and will remain cold ( here’s a tip – many natural gemstones won’t warm up when held). Makes a distinctive high pitched ‘chink’ sound if gently tapped on teeth. Easily mistaken for glass – if in doubt get it looked at by an expert.

Bog Oak = usually only seen in brooches. Look under a magnifying glass to see wood grain texture. Often depicts Irish scenes, castles and motifs.

Antique Victorian Vulcanite Ivy leaves brooch jewellery mourning

Vulcanite = warm and soft like plastic. Originally black like jet, it often fades with age to a brown colour. Rub Vulcanite and you’ll smell rubber.

Gutta Percha = rare, similar to Vulcanite except one important difference – the taste test. Be careful with this, as moisture can permanently stain old Gutta Percha. With a dry tip of the tongue, gently press your tongue on the jewellery. Gutta Percha tastes very salty!

 

Some gorgeous vintage French Jet jewellery ..

Antique Victorian French Jet bar mourning brooch jewellery

Antique Victorian French Jet bar mourning brooch jewellery, circa 1880s.

Vulcanite and French jet Victorian pendant

Vulcanite and French jet Victorian mourning pendant jewelry circa 1880s – an unusual mix!

vintage 1980s french jet glass clamper black bangle jewellery

vintage 1980s French jet glass clamper black bangle jewellery

vintage 1970s french jet glass diamante black tassel drop brooch (2)

vintage 1970s French jet glass diamante black tassel drop brooch jewellery

 

french jet oval faceted pendant glass bead necklace (2)

Modern French jet oval faceted pendant glass bead necklace

vintage exquisite signed french jet 2 row necklace 60s

Vintage 2 row French Jet necklace with stunning diamante clasp, signed Exquisite, circa 1960s.

 

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Info guide to cameo jewellery

Antique victorian carved shell cameo brooch jewelry

Cameo Lovin’

Cameos have been treasured throughout the ages. They are made from hand carved shell, agate, marble, coral and precious gemstones, and even made from volcano lava.


Early Cameo History

It’s generally thought that cameos originated in the Middle Eastern regions over 2000 years ago. They wouldn’t have been used for the decorative purposes we love them for today – cameos were statement objects. They might depict the portrait of the King or Ruler of the time (therefore showing political allegiance of the wearer), or show a religious icon. Cameos were also used as amulets and charms to guard against evil spirits and promote good luck. The main materials used in the making of ancient cameos were precious gemstones and hard-stones such as marble and agates – back then, shell cameos were considered inferior imitations only to be worn by the poor.

Vintage carved agate hardstone cameo ring antique jewelry

Vintage carved agate hardstone cameo ring

 



The Cameo Jewellery Golden Era


Although cameos have been esteemed throughout history (Queen Elizabeth I and Napoleon Bonaparte were famously both avid collectors), the heyday of cameo jewellery was between the 18th and 19th Century. They were loved in royal circles and the aristocracy around Europe, who at the time dictated the fashions trends of the time. This period was also the time of the famous Grand Tours,  where the wealthy members of high society would travel extensively around Europe, soaking up new cultures. Italy was an especially popular destination due to its prestigious history in arts and culture. Most of the finest cameos came from there, and were often bought as souvenirs, or sent back home as a gift for loved ones.


Modern Cameo Jewellery


By the mid 20th Century the cameos’ popularity was ending. Though they were still being produced, the quality of the carving in many pieces became poor, with figures and portraits being much cruder than their life-like predecessors of the Georgian and Victorian period.

 

ABOVE: Two cameos. The left one dates from the 19th Century Victorian period, while the one on the right is from the 1990s. Note the difference in quality, with the older cameo benefiting from far superior carving.

 

The cameo is once again seeing a new lease of life. The 21st Century is bringing new state of the art techniques to the craft, such as laser and ultrasonic stone carvings; portraits of pets and loved ones are notable growing areas. These new cameo artisans use lasers to carve the stone while working from emailed photographs, to create a perfect likeness. It seems no matter what happens throughout history, the art of the cameo survives, adapts and flourishes.

How Cameos Are Made


A cameo is carved from one piece of shell or stone such as agate. Shells and stones are naturally layered in colour, for example, the underside may be dark brown, whilst the top may be white in colour. A cameo-carver artisan, due to their years of training, knows how to carve the shell or stone, so that the “white” part is the picture (eg, a lady), and the background is the dark part of the shell or stone. If you do a search for cameo carving on youtube, you’ll see some good videos of this.

Cameo carving is a highly skilled craft, which involves a long apprenticeship and a complete understanding of the materials being used. The basic theory behind both hard stone and shell carving is that the artist develops a deep knowledge of how best to cut and shape a material, so the different coloured layers of shell or stone can be carved and manipulated to their best advantage. For example, a piece of agate may have three layers of colour (eg brown at the bottom, white in the centre, and black at the top). The artisans use their knowledge to take advantage of the layers, leaving the brown as a flat base, the white above this is carved as the portrait, and the black above that is carved into hair. This gives the lifelike 3-D appearance of the fine cameos we see.


‘Fake’ or reproduciton cameos jewellery


As with all fine jewellery, you’ll always find fakes and costume jewellery copies. While most people are honest in describing their cameos, you will occasionally come across people trying to pass on costume jewellery copies as a real carved cameo.  Reproduction cameos are made from plastic or glass. The most common plastic cameo depicts a side portrait of a young lady with her long hair tied in a ponytail – this is the cameo portrait you see in all the high street shops.


Plastic cameos

There are also some beautifully detailed plastic cameos depicting mythology on the market, usually dating from around the 1960s, which to a beginner may look real. Plastic cameos feel warm and slightly soft, not hard and ‘clinky’ like shell. The background can also give you clues – the colour is often a little too bright or pink in plastics. Tap a cameo gently on your front teeth if unsure – plastic cameos feel warm and make a slightly ‘dull’ thud sound, while shell and agate are hard, cold and make a lighter ‘clink’. Finally, you could always try a hot pin test (though this could damage the jewellery and its price, so it’s not recommended). Take a very hot sewing pin (hold it with pliers) and touch the cameo with it in an inconspicuous place. Most plastics will melt, while glass, agate or shell won’t.

ABOVE: Two good quality plastic cameo brooches. Note the unrealistic background colour on the left one, and the molded look of the right one.



Glass cameos

Glass cameos tend to be either one uniform colour such as cream, black or turquoise, or two contrasting colours (eg black background and a glued on opaque white portrait). Glass is cold to touch (like stone), but the quality is not there. They often look quite molded with little true detail, and sometimes have dyed areas especially around the hair that imitate ‘dirt’. Glass and plastic cameos tend to be thicker and chunkier than agate, while shell cameos are very thin. Occasionally agate cameos can be ‘faked’, with a carved agate portrait being glued to a different agate background (this is called a cameo doublet). A good magnifying glass can help you spot this



Collecting plastic or glass cameos is a fun hobby in its own right – many of them are beautiful to look at and are durable enough to worn everyday. The problem begins when people try to pass them on as real.


Cameo Themes, Valuation and Starting a Cameo Collection


Putting a value to cameos can be daunting if you’re new to the subject. Many factors have to be taken into account, including materials used (eg shell, volcanic lava or gemstones), quality of the carving, and if subject matter is rare or not. A big factor is also condition. Hold a shell cameo up to the light and you may see lines and cracks. This is not desirable, and any damage to a cameo can affect its value (unless the subject matter is rare or sought after).  Some cameos are set into solid gold or silver, though confusingly if the carving quality of a gold set cameo is poor, then it’s often not worth as much as a highly detailed top quality carved cameo in plain base metal.


Portrait Cameos

Most cameos are portraits. Right facing is most common, then left facing after that, and very occasionally you may see a forward facing portrait.



Mythological Cameos
Cameos depicting scenes from Roman mythology were made up until the early 1900s, and are always highly sought after. Popular themes are:


1.The Three Graces ( three dancing women side by side)

2. Hebe and Zeus ( a swan swooping down from the sky towards a lady)

3. Diana the Moon Goddess ( has a moon crescent in her hair)

4. Bacchus the God of Wine/ Intoxication (has grapes in the hair)

5. Athena/ Minerva Goddess of Wisdom, Warriors and the Arts (female warrior with helmet)

6. Peace- Psyche & the Dove (beautiful woman with dove bird)

7. Poseidon/ Neptune (holds a pronged trident)

8. St George and the Dragon

9. Apollo (laurel wreath in his hair)

10. Venus and Cupid (Venus is always a beautiful lady, sometimes playing a harp and if you see a small winged cherub it’s Cupid).

antique cameo brooch hebe zeus shell mourning victorian jewelry

ABOVE: A Victorian cameo depicting Hebe and Zeus (as an eagle). Note the fine quality carving of the brooch. Unfortunately, this one has a crack down one side, which in most cases severely affect the price. However, this cameo was quite special; it had a secret glass compartment at the back which could hold a keepsake – almost unheard of in cameo jewellery.



Other subjects in cameo jewellery.


Cameos of flowers are popular when beginning a collection as they can still be purchased quite cheaply. Occasionally you’ll find cameos depicting rural farm scenes, or animals such as horses. These were often private commissions, and can be highly detailed. Value depends on the theme and quality, and will usually in the same price region as the mythology cameos.

 

Georgian tiny carved shell cameo brooch lake antique jewellery Vintage carved shell cameo brooch rural peeping tom jewellery gold

ABOVE: Two rural scene cameos. The one on the left is tiny (less than an inch), and dates from the Georgian period. The right one is from the 20th Century, and shows a cheeky peeping tom boy looking at a girl bathing in the river.



Dating Cameos


Nothing beats personal experience when it comes to learning how to date a cameo. Go to antiques fairs and vintage jewellery shops and handle as many as possible. Get a feel for them – look at the metal settings, quality of carving and subject matter. Some guidelines below may help:


1. Look at the clasp. This is always a good indication of age. ‘Roll over clasps’ are modern, and won’t really be seen on pre 1920s jewellery. A plain ‘c-clasp’ (ie the brooch pin loops under a c shaped piece of metal with no ‘roll over’ fitting) are a good indication of a possible old/ antique brooch.The pin is a giveaway too. Pre 1920s pins were set in a T-shape.

2. What is the subject? Mythology shell cameos usually date from the 18th Century to the very early 20th Century. Portraits can give hints of age too, and here I’m going to share with you a dealers secret! Look at the persons nose. A strong ‘Roman’ nose indicates pre 1860s. Straighter noses are Victorian, while tiny pert noses are contemporary 20th/ 21st Century. Chunky rounded ladies are generally Victorian in origin Cameos made from Whitby Jet or lava are usually Georgian or Victorian.


Modern vintage (ie after the 1930s) cameos are usually portraits of pretty young dainty ladies, with flowers on their hair. Some cameos wear necklaces which are set with sparking stones such as diamonds. These are known as habille cameos.

 

Modern laser cut agate cameos are easy to identify, having a vivid background colour (usualluy blue or pink) and white portrait . The portraits are incredibly detailed – often too detailed! Hair is let loose and swirly, and the whole cameo has a wispy, almost Art Nouveau dreamy feel. This type of cameo also can feel slightly ‘gritty’ when gently rubbed across your teeth, whereas the old agate cameos feel much smoother like glass.


Caring For Your Cameo Jewellery


Shell cameos need a little TLC once a year. Simply wash them gently in weak soapy water and dry thoroughly. Rub a little mineral oil all over front and back and leave to soak in for a couple of hours, after which you can wipe away all the access. By treating (called feeding) the cameo in this way once a year you are protecting it from drying out and cracking, preserving it for future generations to enjoy and admire.

Vintage and Antique Scottish agate jewellery info guide

Antique scottish agate brooch jewellery

A brief history

Agate jewellery has been produced in Scotland for hundreds of years, though it was Queen Victoria’s love affair with all things Scottish (culminating in the purchase of Balmoral Castle in Aberdeenshire around the 1850s) which propelled this distinctive type of jewellery to public view. Back in the 19th Century, the aristocracy were a major influence on fashion, and soon people began following the Queen style, which included wearing Scottish jewellery. Popular designs were ‘plaid’ brooches (ie agates laid together in a kind of mosaic), and carved agates set into silver bracelets, complete with carved agate buckles, heart clasps and charms.

 

antique jewelry Scottish agate dirk pin, with Scottish amethyst gemstone detail.

ABOVE: An antique Scottish agate dirk pin, with Scottish amethyst gemstone detail.

 

Queen Victoria’s death in 1901 signaled a general decline in the popularity of Scottish agate jewellery. However, it became fashionable once again in the 1950s – 1970s when the old Scottish designs were re-created in bold costume jewellery, which used cheaper glass instead of real agates. Famous companies who made this type of jewellery include Miracle, Jacobite and Jem. By the later 20th Century, the beauty of genuine old antique Scottish jewellery was being quietly being rediscovered. Nowadays it is incredible sought after, and antique Scottish agate work can command high prices.

 

antique victorian edwardian scottish agate locket jewellery

What Is Scottish Agate Jewellery?

The beautiful country of Scotland is home to an amazing array of chalcedony quartz gemstone, also known as agate, which comes in a huge variety of colours and patterns. It was this quality that attracted the skilled craftsmen of the ancient past to experiment with slicing and placing them together to form colourful mosaic patterns. This agate work was then set into metal (usually solid silver, though occasionally solid gold too). The best antique Scottish jewellery often shows different slices of agate which have been slotted, plaided and polished together into patterns to almost form one stone – some jewellery even resembled multi-coloured tartan patterns.
When it came to wearing Scottish agates, it was the brooches which were the most commonly worn as they were both beautiful and functional, holding those heavy Victorian garments, capes and kilts in place. Bracelets, earrings and rings were slightly more unusual. Occasionally Scottish agate necklaces were made, though these are rare and generally only seen in museums or specialist collections.

ABOVE: This circa 1870s brooch is a fine example of old Victorian Scottish agate jewellery. Note the flush setting, and high polish finish. Each of these agates came from a different part of Scotland.

ABOVE: This circa 1870s brooch is a fine example of old Victorian Scottish agate jewellery. Note the flush setting, and high polish finish. Each of these agates came from a different part of Scotland.

Vintage Victorian edwardian scottish agate brooch jewellery, with stunning metal scroll patterns

ABOVE: A simple Victorian Scottish Agate jewellery ‘slab agate’ brooch, so call named as it is made from only one solid piece of agate. Also, notice the metalwork patterns – Victorians used fine scroll work on their jewellery, not Celtic knotwork patterns.

 

Jewellery symbolism played an important part of Victorian life. Certain motifs were popular, such as horseshoes, anchors, axes, flowers, thistles, daggers, shields and knots. Buckle motifs were especially loved by the Victorians, and jewellery which displays a buckle piece in its design is still sought after today. Occasionally you’ll see household objects such as kettles, or musical instruments like harps and violins, as canny Victorian jewelers sought to tap into more sentimental designs.

 

Vintage victorian edwardian scottish agate brooch jewellery, with articulated buckle

ABOVE: Buckle motifs were popular in the Victorian era. This fine example of Scottish agate jewellery dates from circa 1870s, and the buckle is even movable.

It’s the simple beauty, variety of designs, exquisite workmanship and of course the amazing colours of Scottish jewellery which makes it so desirable. It’s still made today, though in general it tends to be quite different from its ancestors, with greater emphasis on modern metal-work Celtic knot-work patterns rather than creating a mosaic of agate stones.

 

ABOVE: A 20th Century reproduction Scottish jewellery brooch, made with real Scottish agates and a centre citrine quartz gemstone. A quick note - antique and vintage 'Scottish' agate jewellery wasn't always actually made in Scotland. England was a producer too, and the silver work was often assayed in Chester and Birmingham. A lot of genuinely Scottish made jewellery was not assayed at all.

ABOVE: A 20th Century reproduction Scottish jewellery brooch, made with real Scottish agates and a centre citrine quartz gemstone. A quick note – antique and vintage ‘Scottish’ agate jewellery wasn’t always actually made in Scotland. England was a producer too, and the silver work was often assayed in Chester and Birmingham. A lot of genuinely Scottish made jewellery was not assayed at all.

Scottish Costume Jewellery Reproductions

As with most fine antique jewellery, you will come across modern and more affordable takes on this old genre. The skill that was involved in creating the real Victorian Scottish agate work was huge, so nowadays it’s too time consuming to recreate accurately. Therefore modern ‘Scottishinspired’ jewelry is quite easy to spot with a little practice. Collecting Scottish costume jewellery is a hobby in it’s own right.

Vintage Scottish Celtic glass agate brooch signed Miracle

ABOVE: A reproduction Scottish style glass agate brooch, signed Miracle. This jewellery design company specializes in reproduction Scottish agate jewellery, and has a dazzling array of beautiful designs. Even though most Miracle jewellery is classed as costume jewellery, it is collected throughout the world.

 

The most common indication of a modern reproduction is glass being used instead of agate. This can be difficult to identify at first, because they both are hard, cold materials. However, the modern stones tend to be set into much chunkier metal than agates, and the metal work will often show crude patterns. A good magnifying glass or jewelers loupe is a must – agates often have bits of natural surface wear and some can be slightly matte, while glass is usually ice smooth and more reflective.

I’ve set up two Pinterest Boards which show what antique Scottish jewellery and then modern Scottish jewellery looks like:

Antique Scottish agate jewellery (dating 1850s to 1900s)

Later vintage/ modern Celtic and Scottish glass costume jewellery (dating 1960s to 2000s)

Collecting modern Scottish inspired costume jewellery is a popular hobby in itself, but occasionally even second-hand jewellery sellers and antique dealers can’t seem to tell the difference between the modern costume jewellery copies and genuine antique agate work! Always ask sellers friendly questions before you buy if you’re unsure of a piece, and make sure they accept returns if you are unhappy with your purchase.

ABOVE: A modern reproduction Celtic style ring, with purple glass imitation agate. Notice how the metal work is the focus of the jewellery, not the stone. In genuine antique Scottish jewellery it is the other way round - the focus is on the stone work, not the metal.

ABOVE: A modern reproduction Celtic style ring, with purple glass imitation agate. Notice how the metal work is the focus of the jewellery, not the stone. In genuine antique Scottish jewellery it is the other way round – the focus is on the stone work, not the metal.

ABOVE: A modern (circa 1980s) Scottish Celtic bracelet, with glass imitation agates. Compare this bracelet, and the above ring with the Victorian brooches. Notice how the patterns and scroll work are chunkier and more crude in modern items - this helps when trying to date Scottish jewellery.

ABOVE: A modern (circa 1980s) Scottish Celtic bracelet, with glass imitation agates. Compare this bracelet, and the above ring with the Victorian brooches. Notice how the patterns and scroll work are chunkier and more crude in modern items – this helps when trying to date Scottish jewellery.

 

Buying tips for Scottish all types of jewellery (modern and antique):

 

~Signatures: Costume jewellery from the 1950s onwards often had company name stamps (aka ‘signatures’) on them. These signatures can be hard to find at first – study the back carefully with a magnifying glass, and if you see words such as ‘Miracle’…’Jem’….’Jewelcraft’….’Hollywood’ you have a mid to late 20th Century Scottish inspired costume jewellery piece.

vintage jacobite glass stone agate celtic trifoil brooch

The back of a modern (circa 1970s) glass stone Scottish costume jewellery brooch. It is signed/ stamped ‘Jacobite’, meaning it was made by the company of that name.

~Workmanship: Modern Scottish brooches tend to have ‘chunky’ metal frames (almost always with crude engravings or thick Celtic patterns), thick prongs, and chunky raised ‘stones’. Antique Scottish jewellery usually has superb fine workmanship, flush flat stones,exquisite prong settings and occasionally delicate engraved Victorian scroll work on the metal (but no Celtic patterns).

~ Condition Condition Condition: In all cases, these should be no stones missing – these are almost impossible to replace. Also avoid cracked and badly chipped stones, unless you are genuinely in love with the piece of jewellery. Tiny nibbles (also called ‘flea bites’) to the stones are generally acceptable in antique jewellery. Check all clasps work, and there is no rust, verdigris or damage to the metal work.

malachite scottish agate brooch antique broken

The pin has broken off this old antique Scottish agate brooch – fixing it is very difficult unless your a proper jeweler.

~Does it have a two-tone mix of coral red and green malachite style stones? Watch out – I’ve witnessed some well known antiques dealers fall for this one! You may occasionally come across some Scottish style brooches which at first look to be genuine antiques – usually round brooches, or occasionally 3-leaf clovers or a horseshoe. However they are not old – they are modern mid to late 20th Century reproductions. These brooches are set into solid silver (stamped plain ‘925’), closed at the back (ie full silver backdrops rather than open or slate backed), and have small ‘agate’ tiles of malachite and coral red. But these stones are not agates – they are very good glass copies.

~ Other tips: A good way to identify these modern repros is that they usually have roll over clasps rather than the old ‘c’ style clasp (you can learn more about dating brooches by their clasp type in my Five Tips For Vintage Dating Brooches guide.)

 

Looking after your antique Scottish Agate Jewellery

A simple and very occasional light clean in mild soapy water is all you need to do to keep you jewellery clean and bright. Dry immediately and very thoroughly so the water doesn’t affect any cement which may be holding in the agates .

Beginner’s Guide & Info On Victorian Mourning Jewellery

One of the most fascinating areas of vintage jewellery is the genre known as mourning jewellery. When Queen Victoria’s husband Prince Albert died at the early age 42, she was consumed with grief for many years. One of the ways she expressed this was to wear tokens of her mourning in the shape of jewellery. Whilst ‘mourning jewellery’ has been around for hundreds of years, it was the influential Queen Victoria who started the mourning fashion craze, which quickly spread amongst the masses. It was to last until her own death 40 years later.

antique victorian coral mourning brooch with weaved hair

ABOVE: an example of an early Victorian mourning brooch, made from coral and intricately weaved human hair.

What is mourning jewellery?

In times gone by, many people died at a young age because of poor diet and unhygienic lifestyles. Deadly disease was rife, and child birth was a major risk which put both mother and baby in life-threatening danger; death played a sad yet normal part of every day life. For the status obsessed and crushingly polite 19th century Victorians, mourning jewellery was a clever way of showing people what your status was (eg newly widowed or just lost a child) without the potential embarrassment of telling them. It was also worn as a sentimental reminder of the person who’d actually passed away.

The secret Language of Flowers, and hidden symbolism in Victorian mourning jewellery

The Victorians had strict codes of behavior and etiquette. Even expressing a personal feeling was often considered rude, so when someone needed to convey a message, they did so using silent symbolism, which involved giving gifts which symbolized words. For example, floral bouquets called ‘Tussie Mussie’s’ were popular during this period. They worked by letting the sender spell out a whole sentence in flowers (eg bell flowers meant “thinking of you“) to a desired recipient. Jewellery was often given for the same reason too – forget-me-not flower jewellery was especially popular as it meant ‘true love’.

ABOVE: a Victorian mourning flower brooch made from Vulcanite. The types of flowers shown here would have had great meaning to the original owner.

ABOVE: a 19th Century Victorian mourning flower brooch made from Vulcanite, which is a type of rubber material. The types of flowers shown here would have had great meaning to the original owner.

Materials used to make mourning jewellery

Natural Whitby jet from Yorkshire was one of the most sought after materials for mourning jewellery due to the natural high quality finish which could be achieved. However, it quickly became scarce and expensive due to demand, so ‘fake’ jets such as black glass (romantically called French Jet) became a cheaper alternative, as did dyed black horn, early rubberized materials (such as Vulcanite), and bog oak from Ireland.

The Victorian era was a period of immense change and fast moving innovation. Up until the 19th Century, jewellery was individually hand made, usually with precious metals, gemstones and glass (a.k.a ‘paste’ which was an expensive luxury), and was the preserve of the rich upper classes. Mourning jewellery was one of the first type of jewellery that was mass produced in large numbers, and was so low priced it could be worn by the general population, not just the aristocracy.

ABOVE: This necklace is made from Vulcanite (aka Ebonite), a 19th Century hard rubberized man-made material which could be mass produced. These chunky chain links were the height of fashion for Victorian ladies.

ABOVE: This Victorian antique necklace is made from Vulcanite, a 19th Century hard rubberized man-made material which could be mass produced. These chunky chain links were the height of fashion for Victorian ladies.

ABOVE: a Victorian antique Vulcanite morning brooch, depicting ivy (which means true love).

ABOVE: a Victorian antique Vulcanite morning brooch, depicting ivy (which often means true love).

ABOVE: This Victorian pendant is made from a Vulcanite base, while the grapes are made from French Jet, which is a fancy term for black glass. Grapes symbolise charity.

ABOVE: This antique Victorian pendant is made from a Vulcanite base, while the grapes are made from French Jet, which is a fancy term for black glass.

ABOVE: a typical hand carved Whitby jet mourning brooch.

ABOVE: a typical hand carved antique Victorian Whitby jet mourning brooch.

PhotobuckABOVE: a rare 19th Century Whitby Jet mourning necklace, made from hand faceted beads. Whitby Jet was believed to be the finest of all the jet gemstones, and was prized by the Victorians. It's still highly desirable today.et

ABOVE: a rare 19th Century antique Whitby Jet mourning necklace, made from hand faceted beads. Whitby Jet was believed to be the finest of all the jet gemstones, and was prized by the Victorians. It is still highly desirable today.

ABOVE: A Victorian mourning necklace, made from French Jet (aka black glass). Real jet jewellery was expensive and rare - French Jet was an affordable alternative for Victorian fashion lovers.

ABOVE: An antique Victorian mourning necklace, made from French Jet (aka black glass). Real jet jewellery was expensive and rare – French Jet was an affordable alternative for Victorian fashion lovers.

ABOVE: a black enamel and woven hair Victorian mourning brooch, made from two tones of human hair - probably the hair of the deceased and their widowed partner, woven together.

ABOVE: a black enamel and woven hair antique Victorian mourning brooch, made from two tones of human hair – possibly the hair of the deceased and their widowed partner, woven together.

ABOVE: a black enamel and blond woven human hair Victorian mourning brooch. This is a basic example of Victorian hair weaving - the more elaborate ones are breathtaking in their creation and impossibly intricate weaving.

ABOVE: a black enamel and blond woven human hair antique Victorian mourning brooch. This is a basic example of Victorian hair weaving – the more elaborate ones are breathtaking in their creation and impossibly intricate weaving.

ABOVE: a woven hair (horse tail) Victorian pocket watch chain

ABOVE: horses were highly prized in Victorian times, and this a antique Victorian pocket watch chain has been woven with the hair tail of a much loved horse. This is the only type of mourning jewellery that is still popular today,with many companies still specializing in sentimental horse hair jewellery.

ABOVE: a Victorian Whitby jet mourning bracelet, which looks and feels as new today as it did when it was first made over 120 years ago.

ABOVE: a Victorian Whitby jet mourning bracelet, which looks and feels as new today as it did when it was first made over 120 years ago.


You can learn how to identify jewellery materials such as Vulcanite and Whitby Jet in this blog post.

Collecting mourning jewellery

Original jewellery from the Victorian period was made to last, and can still be found quite easily today. Vulcanite, horn, Whitby Jet and bog oak brooches are common, though necklaces, rings and bracelets are rare and command much higher prices. The most sought after antique mourning jewellery is made from enameled precious metals and includes impossibly intricate hair weaving.

Finally, a type of jewellery called ‘Memento Mori’ (which is Latin for ‘Remember you will die’), at first looks quite similar to mourning jewellery. However, it dates back to around the 1600s, and was slightly different in that it was generally worn as a reminder of one’s own mortality and fleeting time on earth, rather than an actual mourning trinket of someone else’s death. You can recognize antique Memento Mori items straight away due to their disturbing imagery, which includes brooches depicting miniature paintings of coffins, rings set with tiny carved skulls instead of gemstones, and even pictures of rotting corpses on bracelets.

Five tips on how to date a vintage brooch…. with pictures to help!

Many people want to know about dating vintage and antique brooches, and how they can tell if a brooch is old. Here are a five tips to help you find out…

  • If you see a brooch, the first thing to do is to check out its clasp mechanisms. The ‘T-bar pins and c-clasp’ types were used from the 18th Century up until the around 1910s, after which they fell out of favour.
  • Check the length of the pin itself – the longer the pin, the older the brooch (this was perhaps due to clothing being much thicker and heavier in the old days, so a long pin was needed to keep it in place securely).
  • From around the 1910s to 1950s we occasionally see what we call in the trade ‘trombone’ clasps, which are tubular cylinders used to keep the pin itself in place rather than a c-clasp (though c-clasps were still very common in this period too).
  • Generally speaking you tend to only find roll-over  clasps on brooches made from the 1960s onwards. (Note: Early experimental prototype roll-over ‘safety’ clasps can be seen as early as the 1910s, though these are exceptionally rare – I’ve only ever seen a small handful made before the 1940s in the last 10 years).
  • There are no hard and fast rules to dating a brooch – things other than a pin and clasp are taken into account; the tips given here are general tips only for general guidance, and you may occasionally find a crude c-clasp on a piece of 1970s jewellery, or a long pin on 1980s jewellery (though T-bar hinges are never found in post 1930s jewellery, so that’s a help anyway!).

Picture time! You can see some examples of these  types of brooch clasps below, starting from the earliest type:

antique scottish agate victorian banded agate brooch jewellery dating tips

VICTORIAN T -BAR HINGES: A typical antique T-bar hinge and C-clasp shown on a brooch dating circa 1880s. The T-bar is named after the T shape of the hinge (left of picture), while the C-clasp is named after the c shaped hook catch the pin fits into (right). This type of brooch fixing was used throughout the Victorian period and up until around the Art Deco era.

antique scottish agate banded brooch 1a close up T- bar hinge jewelry dating

VICTORIAN T -BAR HINGES: Close up of an antique t-bar hinge, used on circa pre-1920s jewellery, with the blue ring circling a good example of one.

whitby jet brooch jewelry

VICTORIAN T -BAR HINGES: The back of a circa 1880s Victorian Whitby Jet mourning brooch shows a crude T-bar hinge and c-clasp.  Note the long pin, which stretches way over the brooch itself.

antique edwardian glass paste rhinestone brooch vintage dating jewelry tips

EDWARDIAN HINGES: In the early 20th Century the T-bar hinge was gradually replaced with a smaller rounded hinge, as seen on this circa Edwardian 1910s brooch (and like on the brooches we see nowadays). Note that the long pin is still popular.

vintage 1950s brown banded glass agate brooch green pearl rhinestones dating help jewellery

20TH CENTURY TROMBONE CLASPS: The trombone tube clasp never really became commonly used, and was generally seen on brooches from around the 1910s up to the 1950s. It consists of a cylinder tube within a cylinder – you pull the inner cylinder out to release the pin.

vintage 1970s rolled gold shell cameo brooch pendant (3)

A standard roll-over pin and clasp, which became the standard brooch fitting around the 1960s onwards to today. Note how short the pin itself has become, especially when compared to the long Victorian pins.

victorian vintage antique etruscan gold emerald green brooch glass

ROLL-OVER SAFETY CLASP:  A good close up of a modern roll over clasp. Just to confuse things, this is actually a repair job – a modern clasp fitting on a very old antique Victorian mourning brooch. Note the silver soldering, which gives the repair away  – the roll-over clasp has been put on there as the original 120 year old  c-clasp had broken off.  Dating old jewellery can be complicated!

Finally,  the most important tip when learning to date vintage jewellery is to handle as many pieces as possible. Go to auctions, antique fairs and proper vintage shops and have a really good look at what genuine vintage jewellery looks and feel like.